The Turkish people are preparing to celebrate the 96th anniversary of the Turkish Republic, which was founded under the leadership of Mustafa Kemal Atatürk and his fellow soldiers. This exceptional and glorious day will be celebrated this year with the most spectacular events and ceremonies. What is the meaning, significance and story of this important day? Here is the story of the establishment of the Republic of Turkey in its 96th year.
The Ottoman Empire maintained total sovereignty over the people until 1876, and the state was ruled with absolute monarchy. With the beginning of the Tanzimat period, the idea of the RepublicRepublic was mentioned from time to time. However, the Ottoman intellectuals saw the establishment of constitutionalism as sufficient. The Ottoman Empire was ruled between 1876-1878 and 1908-1918 with a constitutional monarchy. World War I destroyed the Ottoman Empire. After World War I, the Independence War Of Turkey has been won under the leadership of Mustafa Kemal Pasha and it was declared that the will of the people would decide the future of Turkey. One of the best examples of this was the decision in the third article of the Erzurum Congress held on July 23 1919; “It is fundamental to make the National Forces active and to dominate the national will.” Because of the occupation of Istanbul and the dissolution of the Mebusan Assembly, the new assembly which was convened in Ankara on April 23, 1920, under the name of Grand National Assembly ılmış made the national will concrete.
On January 20 1921, the Parliament adopted the new constitution(Taşkilat-ı Esasiye Law). With this Law, sovereignty was declared that it belongs to the Turkish nation. In this process, the Istanbul government continued to regard itself as the representative of the Turkish nation. As a reaction to this situation, the original assembly in Ankara abolished the Ottoman monarchy on November 1 1922. The first Parliament decided to renew the election, and on April 1, 1923, and the former Parliament dissolved. Until a new government was convened, Mustafa Kemal began to draft a constitution in which he could declare the state’s governance and capital. During this period, he did interviews with those around him about the proclamation of the Republic, and in his interview with Wieber Neue Freie Presse on 22 September 1923, he asserted the word ‘republic’ for the first time and has aroused enormous repercussions in the world. In October 1923, İsmet Pasha and a group of deputies submitted a law proposal for Ankara to become the centre of government, and on 13 October 1923, it was adopted by a single-article law.
Turkey’s Grand National Assembly announced the official declaration of the Republic on October 29, 1923, with Mustafa Kemal Atatürk’s constitutional amendment proposal. With this offer parliamentary constitutional republic has been identified as the State of Turkey’s form of government. The declaration of the Republic aimed to modernize the Turkish society. This declaration is an integral part of the Turkish Revolution. With the proclamation of the Republic, the improvements and reformations started to take place rapidly. At the same time, amendments were made to the six articles of the 1921 Constitution and modifications have been made to the Law on the Amendment of Certain Articles of the Organization Act No. 364 dated 29 October 1339 (1923). In the first article “Sovereignty, unconditionally belongs to the nation. Administration method is based on the principle of taking their fate personally into their own hands. Turkey form of government is parliamentary constitutional republic” declarations took place. With the amendments made in other articles, the government system was abandoned and the parliamentary system was adopted. President of Turkey will be elected by Grand National Assembly members. The presidential chair was established.